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3.2.4. Other works in PathineN kIz kaNaKKU

innA n^ARpathu (;[f[a nabfpT) is collection of 40 poems written by Kapilar (kpilrf) describing the most undesirable things one should avoid. Included in this category are: the beauty of a wife without commitment (pnftmf ;lflat mA[yi[f v[pfp< ;[f[a) ; the wealth of a miser (v]fAm ;laqrf v[pfp< ;[f[a) ; life under a tyrant rule (ekaDgfEkalf mbm[f[rf kIzf vazftlf ;[f[a) ; the beauty of a flower without fragrance (nabfbmf ;lat mlri[f `zK ;[f[a) .

iniyavai n^ARpathu (;[iyAv nabfpT) is a similar group of 40 poems composed by BUtham SErnthanAr (p>tmf Ecrfnft[arf) outlining the most desirable things in life: learning even at the expense of begging (picfAc p<kfkayi{mf kbfblf mik;[iEt) ; the advice of learned persons (kbfbbinfEtarf PBmf kRmpfepaRqf ;[iEt) ; children without disease (Kzvi pi]iyi[fbi vazftlf ;[iEt) ; noncovetousness of a neighbour's wife (pib[fmA[pf pi[fEnakfkapf pID ;[iT) . Together the two works lay out in simple and succinct terms moral codes essential for daily life of the individual and for the society. The emphasis given to education and the responsibilities of each member of the society is to be noted.

Thiri katukam (tiri kDkmf), n^allAthanAr, (nlflat[arf) , 100 poems, SiRu pancha mUlam (ciB pwfcYMlmf) , MAkkAyan MANAkkan (makfkay[f ma]akfk[f) 100 poems and ElAthi ("lati), KaNi mEthAviyAr, (k]iEmtaviyarf 80 poems. The general style followed in these 3 works is to stress 3, 5 or 6 different maxims respectively in each stanza which would have good effects on human behaviour just as herbs have in various combinations on health.

In Thiri katukam the herb combination compared is a mixture of sukku (CkfK), miLaku (miqK) , and thippili (tipfpili) . The moral in the following poem is that ignorance gives rise to friendliness with illiterates, abuse of the wife and the arrival of undesirble friends:

klflarfkfK ;[f[a oZkLmf kazfkfeka]fd
;lflaAqkf Ekalalf p<AdtftLmf ;lflmf
cibiyaArkf eka]fD p<kLmf;mf YM[fBmf
`biyaAmyalf vRmf EkD.

The 3 attributes of a chaste wife are that she is a good friend because of her hospitality, she is a good mother because of her devotion to the household and she is a good wife for bearing good children. The poem is as follows:

nlfliRnfT Omfpli[f ndfdaqamf, AvkLmf
;bfp<rmf ecyftli[f :[fbtayf, etalfKFyi[f
mkfkdf epbli[f mA[kfkiztfti, ;mfYM[fBmf
kbfp<Adyaqf p>]fd kd[f.

In SiRupancha mUlam (ciB pwfc YYMlmf) the 5 beneficial herbs chosen to represent good things are kandan katthiri (k]fdgf ktftiri) , siRuvzhu thuNai (ciBvZTA]) , siRumalli (ciBmlfli) , perumalli (epRmlfli) , and n^erunji (enRwfci) . The five good maxims referred to in the following poem are: the greatness of forgiveness, the meanness of revenge, preparedness against enemies, avoidance of beggary and living affluently with grace.

piAztft epaBtftlf epRAm, ciBAm
;Aztft tIgfK ']f]i ;Rtftlf - piAztft
pAkekd vazfvTmf, plfepaRqalff, plflarf
nAkekd vazfvTv<mf n[fB.

Another set of unfortunate things which are referred to are: trees which flower but do not bear fruits, uneducated people who never get wise with age, seeds which do not germinate even with proper care and fools who never learn.

p> tftaLmf kaya mrmf uq, n[fB `biyarf
YYYMtftaLmf YYMvarf N\lf Etbfbatarf- patfti
p<AttftaLmf nabat vitfT uq, EpAtkfK
uArtftaLmf eclflaT u]rfv<

The following are as good as nectar: a chaste girl, the humility of the learned, friendly neighbouring countries, benevolent kings under whose reign there are timely rains and loyal assistants.

kbfp<Ady ep]f `mirfT, kbfB `dgfki[a[f `mirfT
nbfp<Ady naD`mirfT - nbfp<Ady
EmkEm EcrfekaF EvnfT `mirfT, Ecvk{mf
~kEv ecyfyi[f `mirfT.

ElAthi ("lati) is the third work in which the efficacy of certain herbs to the body is used as an analogy to emphasize the beneficial effects of the maxims in the poems to human welfare. The herbal mix referred to in ElAthi is made up of Elam ("lmf) , ilavankap pattai (;lvgfkpfpdfAd) , nAgakEsaram (nakEkcrmf) , miLaku (miqK) , thippili (tipfpili ) , and sukku (CkfK) . The following is addressed to a maiden (mkYDM[f[iAl) to state that fame, wealth, integrity in words, boldness, education and philanthropy add beauty to those who follow scriptures.

ec[fbp<kzf, eclfvmf, mIkfPbfbmf, Ecvkmf
ni[fbniAl, klfvi, vqfq[fAm - '[fBmf
`qivnftarf p>gfKzlayf ~Bmf mAbyi[f
vzivnftarf k]fE] v[pfp<

(mIkfPbfbmf= ecalfLmf varftfAt, `qi vnftarf p>gfKzlayf= v]fDkqf epaRnfTmf p>Av `]inft ep]fE])

AchArak kOvai (~carkfEkaAv) is another member in the series dealing with moral instructions written by PeruvAyin MuLLiyAr (epRvayi[f Mqfqiyarf) , 100 songs). Unlike the first three in the series, AchArak kOvai is more Sanskritized and is reckoned to be written later than the others. The instructions contained are more in the nature of personal rituals than codes of ethics. The following poem states that only those who first bathe, wash their feet and hands and finish their rituals before eating are supposed to have eaten their food while others are considered to have gulped their food like demons.

nIraFkf kalf kZvi vayfp>ci m]fdlmfecyf
T]fdaEr y<]fda er[pfpDvrf `lflatarf
u]fdarfEpalff vayfp> cicf eclfvrf `TevDtfTkf
eka]fdrf `rkfkrf KbitfT.

Pazhamozhi (pzemazi) was written by a Jain, MunRuRai araiyanAr (M[fBAb `Ary[arf) , 400 songs. One of the most characteristic features of Thamizh culture is the use of proverbs (old sayings) both in spoken and in written Thamizh either to illustrate a point or justify an action so that it falls in line with traditional patterns. Composed in the veNpA style (ev]fpa) , the song is addressed to a man (~YDuM[f[iAl) or a woman (mkYDuM[f[iAl) . By putting a girl in a prison one cannot control her unchaste mind just as one will not able to straighten a dog's tail . This thought is captured in the following Pazhamozhi poem which ends in the proverb that the dog's tail cannot be straightened:

niAbya[f miKkla EnriAz yaArcf
ciAbya[f `kpfpDtftlf ~ka - `AbEya
vRnft vliti[i[f yapfpi{mf nayfvalf
tiRnfTtlf '[fBEm ;lf.

Muthumozhik kAnchi (MTemazikfkawfci) is noted for its simple style and forceful message of moral rules. It was written by Mathuraik kUdalAr KizAr (mTArkfPdlarf kizarf) , 100 songs in groups of 10 poems in each section. All the poems start with the same line but the 10 lines in each section will contain a significant phrase of the moral emphasized. For example, in the following poem, the excellence (cibnft[fB) of righteous behaviour and chastity will be found in the second and third lines:

~rfkli ulktfT mkfkdf eklflamf
Otlilf cibnft[fB oZkfkmf uAdAm,
katlilf cibnft [fB k]f `wfcpfpDtlf.

The remaining works in the PathineN kIz kaNakku deal with the akam (`kmf) topics following the tradition of the Sangam period. The only exception is KaLavzhi n^ARpathu (kqvzi nabfpT) which covers puRam (p<bmf ) topics.

3.3. Conclusion

From the foregoing it could be seen how the trends in Thamizh literature have changed from descriptions of subjective and objective emotions in the Sangam period to the emphasis on moral codes of ethics aimed at improving the life of the individual and the society. In almost all the works of the post Sangam period the importance of education and chastity has been stressed. Whether this trend was deliberately taken by the poets upon themselves to improve the moral standards of people in a positive action or this represents the influence of the strict discipline of the newly emerging religions (Jainism and Buddhism) is not known.

3.4. Bibliography

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GOvindasAmy, M. (1969)Ekavinftcami, M. tmizf ;lkfkiy vrlaB (;lkfkiytf Etabfbmf). pari niAlymf, ec[fA[. pkf. 170.

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MInAtchi sun^tharan, T.P. History of Tamil Literature. aNNAmalai University Publications in linguistics - 3. aNNAmalai University, aNNAmalai n^agar. (1965). pp.211.

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SInicchAmy, T. (1985) cI[icfcami, T. tmizilf kapfpiykfekaqfAk. tmizfpf plfkAlkfkzkmf, twfcav>rf. pkf. 400.

SubramaNian, S.V. and V.VIrAsAmi (ed.) (1981) Cultural Heritage of the Tamils. International Institute of Tamil Studies, Madras. pp. 425.

Sun^thara ShanmukanAr (1970) nalFyarf nyv<Ar. p<TAvpf Apnftmizfpf ptipfpkmf. p<TcfEcri . pkf. 178.

Thirun^Avukkarasu, K.T. (1975) ptie[]f kIzfk]kfK. In: SubramaNian, S.V. and V. VIrAsAmi (ed.) Cpfpirm]iy[f, c.Ev . & vIracami, ta. Ev.. tmizf ;lkfkiykf ekaqfAk - Orf `biMkmf. etaKti 1.. ulktf tmizarayfcfci niBv[mf, ec[fA[. pkf. 67- 90.

VaiyApurip PiLLai, S. (1989) Avyap<ripf piqfAq, 'sf. ;lkfkiycf cinftA[kqf. tmizfpf p<tftkalymf, ec[fA[. pkf.552.

VaiyApurip PiLLai, S. (1957) Avyap<ripf piqfAq. kaviy kalmf. tmizfpf p<tftkalymf, ec[fA[.

VaradharAjan, M. (1972) vrtraj[f, M. tmizf ;lkfkiy vrlaB. SAhitya Academy, New Delhi . pp. 376.

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