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10.2.5.2. KrishNap piLLai, H.A. kiRxf]pfpiqfAq (continued)
ii) In KrishNap PiLLai's poems, one could not help notice that, in pure devotion and absolute surrender to the Supreme, one is automatically elevated to a higher level of human perception. Under these conditions, minor differences in rituals and modes of worships become irrelevant. In the two poems below the author depicts his complete surrender to Jesus Christ.

cinftikfk enwfcFEy[f ec[f[iyiAbwfckf krgfkqf
vnftikfk 'wfwa[fBmf vazftfTkvayf - p<tftikfKqf
vIbfbiRkfKmf EcC viArmlrfpf p> wfEcvFkfEk
~bfBk emyfy[fpi[f p]i.
(;rdfc]iy mE[akrmf 34)

kqfqMBgf kAdEy{gf kAdtfEtbpf epRgfkRA]
evqfqMktfT `Rqf epaziy<mf vimlElac[ nitiAy
uqfq Mvpfp<BEtA[ uyirkffKyiAr y<lvat
etqfqMttf tIgfk[iAycf ciLAv miAc k]fEfdE[
(;rdfc]iy yatftirikmf)

iii) To describe the graceful utterances (ecalfv]f]mf) of Jesus Christ, KrishNap PiLLai has chosen to adopt Kamparís description of rAmanís feet in the akalikaip patalam (`kliAkpffpdlmf) of Kampa rAmAyaNam. This shows his open mindedness and his regard for Kampar. Thus he earned the title of 'Christian Kampar'.

;vfv]f]mi rdfc]iy enbip<Tkfki
va{b Evagfkitykf K[fbilf
emyfv]f] vbfp<tmanf tiRviqkfkilf
viCvaccf CdAr Eybfbi
uyfv]f]wf cAmtftiD va{qgfeka]fD
KmErc{l EkaRkfKkf
Akv]f] mRqfv]f]gf kadfDmf v]f]wf
ecalf v]f]gf kadfDgf ekalfEla
(;rdfc]iy yatftirikmf 159)

;vfv]f] nikzfnft v]f] mi[iyinft
v<lKkf eklflamf
uyfv]f]m[fbi mbfE$rf Tyrfv]f]
Mbv T]fEd
Amv]f]tf trkfki Epari[f mAzv]f
]tf t]f]El y< [f
Akv]f] mgfKkf k]fEd[f kalf
v]f]migfKkf k]fEd[f
(kmfpramay]mf, `kliAkpf pdlmf 82)

iv) Absolute surrender to the Supreme Being and repentance for oneís past actions are common to all religions. The manner in which KrishNap PiLLai had skillfully used Thirun^vukkarasar's (tiRnav<kfkrcrf) ThEvAram (Etvarmf) style in expressing his feelings towards Jesus Christ had rendered his poems appealing to all religious groups in the Thamizh community.
pkft[ayfpf paEd[f Ctft[aeyaZEk[f
pkellflamf pavEm pzki
'tft[ayfkf kzitfEt [i[fBEq [aAq
yil e[[ ev]f]v<mf pDEv[f
pitftE[bf B[T EprRqlflabf
piAzkfK ma biAlya tli[alf
`tftE[ yFEy[i[f cr]AdnfEt
[wfcel[f bAdkfkl mREq
(;rdfc]iy mE[akrmf, AkyAdpfptikmf 2)

nItiyalf vaz madfEd[f
nitftLnf taEy [lfEl[f
Otiy<mf u]r madfEd[f
u[fA[y<qf Avkfk madfEd[f
EcatiEy CdEr y<[fb[f
T\mlrfpf patgf ka]fEp[f
~tiEy `lnfT EpaE[[f
`tiAkvI rdfd[IEr
(tiRnav<kfkrcrf)

An excellent review on KrishNap PiLLai's literary works has been published by SelvarAj (1978).

10.2.5.3. VEthan^Ayam PiLLai (EvtnaykmfpiqfAq) (1826-1889)

He was a lawyer by profession and was employed as a judge in the civil service. He studied Thamizh under MahA VidwAn MInAtchi sun^tharam PiLLai (mkavitfTva[f mI[adfciCnftrmfpiqfAq). It is to be noted that, in those days, one will not be readily accepted by the stalwarts of the Thamizh fraternity until the latter are fully convinced that one is extremely good. VEthan^Ayakam PiLLai did not follow the footsteps of his mentor in his own literary style. He believed in a simple style so that people could understand the subject matter better. He possessed a tremendous sense of humor and was proficient in English and music. As a civil servant he was well aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various members of the society. His literary policy therefore had specific objectives.

As a Christian he wanted to translate the Biblical teachings into simple Thamizh which would have an impact on ordinary people. With his knowledge of English, experience in professional career and sense of humor, he was well suited to write satires on erring officials and greedy elements in the society. People who were rather tired of listening to purANic stories were receptive to these new formats in prose (novels) which became very popular. He translated the legendary unintelligible legal jargons and laws into Thamizh for the benefit of the common man. Finally he made use of his musical talents to compose poems (kIrftftA[kqf) about religion, social reforms and a variety of topics relevant to the time.

His literary works include two in the an^thAthi style (tiRvRqf`nftati, Etvmata`nftati), two devotional poems (tiRvRqfmaAl, EtvEtatftirmaAl), and a few musicals (crfvcmycmrckfkIrftftA[, ctftiyEvtkfkIrftftA[). The novels which brought him fame are: (pirtapMtliyarf critftirmf, CK]Cnftri critftirmf). The last two were milestones in the history of Thamizh literature.

The following poem is an example of VEthan^Aykam PiLLai's satirical verses about the legal profession and corrupt officials:
naE[ epaTnIti taE[ ecLtftid
nlfl vrmf `Rqf EkaE[
vRmf vzkfkrf m[tfAt
v[fecabfkqalf ekdamlf
mbfAbkf kIzf utftiEyaksftrf
vmfp<kfK ;dmfekadamlf
`RmFyalf vzkfK
~rayfcfciyilf pi[f[idamlf
`pfp[f padfd[f eca[f[aLmf
`benbi Akvidamlf
tRm EtvAt way
tlnft[ilf nFkfk
tpfp< cadfcikqf kiD
kiD'[Ev TFkfk
;RAmlfklf `nItiEy
Odfdmf piFkfk
;lwfcmf vagfkikqf
evdfktftalf uyirfmFkfk - naE[...

To this list of scholars belonging to the Christian religion should be added the name of Solomon PAppiAh (caElaEma[fpapfApya) , who is currently extremely popular in Thamizh n^Adu because of his proficiency in Kampa rAmAyaNam. There is hardly a meeting or conference on Kampa rAmAyNam in which he is not a scheduled speaker. The series of talks he is giving on ThirukkuRaL on the television bears testimony to his communicative skills and perception of literary niceties.

10.3. Conclusion
The examples of Thamizh devotional poems from the two religions discussed above show that there are more things in common among them than in their diversity. Even the Thamizh phraseology used to express the ecstasy associated with communion with the Divine is similar. The difference is the location of these spiritual outbursts (temple, mosque or church) and in the specific name given to the Absolute Being. Inasmuch as Thamizh was the medium in all the cases, it is pertinent to ask the question, at the expense of exposing my own naivety, whether religious doctrines and dogmas exist for the sake of the people or whether the people exist to safeguard religion and support the creeds that thrive on their differences ? Certainly the responsibility falls on the shoulders of religous heads to recognize this elementary concept and preach it to their followers to save humanity from needless social tensions.

10.4. Bibliography

aruNAchalam, M. (1975) `R]aclmf, M. Mtbfkapfpiygfkqf. In: tmizf ;lkfkiykf ekaqfAk - Orf `biMkmf. etaKti 1, ulktf tmizarayfcfci niBv[mf, ec[fA[. pkf.93-135.

aruNAchalam, M. (1975) `R]aclmf, M. tmizf ;lkfkiy vrlaB. 9-~mf N\bf$]fD. kanfti vitftiyalymf, tiRcfcibfbmfplmf. pkf.365.

Encyclopaedia of Tamil Literature. (1990) Introductory Articles. G. John Samuel (ed.) Vol. I, Institute of Asian Studies, Madras. pp.696.

GOvindasAmy, M. (1969) Ekavinftcami, M. tmizf ;lkfkiy vrlaB (;lkfkiytf Etabfbmf). pari niAlymf, ec[fA[. pkf. 170.

iLavarasu, S. (1970) Ecam. ;qvrC. ;RpT N\bfba]fDkqilf tmizf. m]ivackrf N\lkmf, citmfprmf. pkf. 170.

innAsi,S. (1983) V.;[f[aci, Etmfpav]itftib[f. Post Graduate Department of Tamil and Research Center, St. Xavier's College, PALayamkOttai. pp. 116.

ismAil, M.M.(1978) 'mf.'mf. ;sfmayilf. MmfmdgfK epalinft[. va[ti ptipfpkmf, ec[fA[. pkf. 259.

ismAil, M.M. (1985) 'mf. 'mf. ;sfmayilf. kmfp[f k]fd cmrcmf. va[ti ptipfpkmf, ec[fA[. pkf. 227.

ismAil, M.M. (1987) 'mf. 'mf. ;sfmayilf. unfTmf uvAk. va[ti ptipfpkmf, ec[fA[. pkf. 227.

MInAtchi sun^tharan, T.P. History of Tamil Literature. aNNAmalai University Publications in linguistics - 3. aNNAmalai University, aNNAmalai n^agar. (1965). pp.211.

rAmAnujan, A.K. (1968) Tamil Studies in the United States I. In Thani Nayakam, X.S. pp.109-113.

rAmasAmy SAstry, K. S. (1967) The Tamils and Their Culture. Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar. p. 179-196.

Samuel, J.J. (1977) Evtnayk casftiriyarf. In: Cpfpirm]iy[f, c.Ev. & k.t. tiRnav<kfkrC. tmizf ;lkfkiykf ekaqfAk . etaKti 2 ulktf tmizarayfcfci niBv[mf, ec[fA[. pkf. 397-422.

SInicchAmy, T. (1985) cI[icfcami, T. tmizilf kapfpiykfekaqfAk. tmizfpf plfkAlkfkzkmf, twfcav>rf. pkf. 400.

SelvarAj, G. (1978) eclfvraC. ji. kviyrcrf kiRxf]piqfAq. In: Cpfpirm]iy[f, c.Ev. & k.t.tiRnav<kfkrC. tmiz ;lkfkiykf ekaqfAk . etaKti 3 ulktf tmizarayfcfci niBv[mf, ec[fA[. pkf. 249-282.

SubramaNian, S.V. and V.VIraswAmi (ed.) (1981) Cultural Heritage of the Tamils. International Institute of Tamil Studies, Madras. pp. 425.

VaiyApurip PiLLai, S. (1956) History of Tamil Language and literature (beginning to 1000 A.D.) New Century Book House, Madras. pp.206.

VaiyApurip PiLLai, S. (1989) Avyap<ripf piqfAq, 'sf. ;lkfkiycf cinftA[kqf. tmizfpf p<tftkalymf, ec[fA[. pkf. 552.

VaiyApurip PiLLai, S. (1957) Avyap<ripf piqfAq. kaviy kalmf. tmizfpf p<tftkalymf, ec[fA[.

VaradharAjan, M. (1972) vrtraj[f, M. tmizf ;lkfkiy vrlaB. . SAhitya Academy, New Delhi . pp. 376.

VenkatasAmi,S. (1971) evgfkdCvami, xI[i. kibisftvMmf tmiZmf. Acvcitftanftkf kzkmff, ec[fA[.

Zvelebil, K.V. (1974) Tamil Literature. Otto Harressowitz, Wiersbaden.

TO CHAPTER 11a

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